Mabuhay and COngratulations Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte !

Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte under the able leadership of Mayor Rommel C. Arnado won the prestigious Championship Award of the National Literacy Award 2018 , Category B Municipality Level besting other entries from all over Philippines. The Award was given lat September 6, 2018 at Hotel Supreme and Convention Center at Baguio City during the National Literacy Congress on September 4-6, 2018 attended by the National officials including the Department of Education Secretaries and undersecretaries, the Philippine Information Agency, and the Office of the President. The Congress also attended by the Schools Division Superintendents from Region 1 to 12 including CARAGA Region and the ARRM Region, school principals, and Local Government Unit officials and representatives. On September 5, 2018 at 2:00 PM to 3:00 Pm , Mayor Rommel C. Arnado presented the Literacy partnership program of the Local Government Unit of Kauswagan titled ” OPLAN KALILINTAD ” an acronym for the Local Literacy Program as: Kauswagan Literacy Links for Inclusive and Total Area Development ( KALILINTAD, which is also a Maranaw language for Peace ).. A presentation which was greatly applauded by the participants on the Plenary session.




FROM ARMS TO FARMS -Walking through the Paths for Peace, the Kauswagan Experience…




Kauswagan , Lanao del Norte has a painful experience of the past. From the early 70’s where the Barracudas ( Maranao fanatics ) and the blackshirts (Christian fanatics) causes death on both tribes and the mass evacuation of the community folks due to killings and burning of houses to the year 2000 when the municipality was nearly occupied by the MILF rebels that resulted to mass evacuations and the public announcement  of then president Joseph E. Estrada for all out war against the MILF in the grounds of the municipality of Kauswagan side by side the sounds of cannons and guns targeting the camps of MILF in the area, and lately in the year 2008 after the failed signing of MOA AD between the GPH and MILF that resulted to the burning of houses , looting, and killing of Christian innocent civilians in two barangays  of the municipality.

The destiny of Kauswagan since 1970’s is doomed by these skirmishes and killings that brought havoc in the life not only with the Christians but also with the Muslim communityfolks who are lovers of peace. This lead to the rise in the poverty incidence of Kauswagan in the year 2009 to 79 %, biases rise to an extreme levels, livelihood is affected, education , health and sanitation, and worst, relationship between Muslims and Christians in the area deteriorates. Several interventions of the different agencies poured out, but the problem never ended. Poverty incidence still rises, and intervening projects did not change the behavior and relationship between the two tribes, the Muslims and Christians, in fact MILF rebellion increased.

When the new administration toke over the government in 2010 when the new benevolent and dynamic Municipal Mayor sworn to office, Mayor Rommel C. Arnado did not waste time but find avenues through convergence and participatory approach in planning the fate and the future of our people.  Pacepaths workshop in the barangay mass level especially in the Muslim dominated areas was made with the LGU on the lead and different NGOs and POs, Religious sectors participated with the Assisi Development Foundation , the Department of Agriculture, and ATI working in convergence to finance some of the programs , projects and activities identified by the community folks themselves. In short, Kauswagan is far ahead of the Aquino administration in bottom up planning & budgeting. Kauswagan is spearheading a new paradigm in participatory planning, budgeting , implementation, monitoring and evaluation of Programs, Projects and activities. NGOs and POs with Assisi Devt. Foundation, DA, and ATI is active in implementing Peace Paths plans and programs identified by the community themselves.

For two years, since 2011  these approaches and methodologies radiates in the heart of some commanders and members of the MILF . Prior to the GPH-MILF accord , the municipality has set its legacy in winning the heart and sympathies of these rebels. Knowing and seeing the participatory approach and convergence efforts of the stakeholders , that resulted to an increase in livelihood of the people focused on Organic farming and livelihood program for the informal sectors, commanders of the MILF namely commander Saidomar Mutia, Commander Mangundato Limbuna, Kumander Hadji Ismael Solaiman, and Commander Benjie Lucsadato and their followers returned to the hold of the government, this time as an emerging Farm entrepreneurs using organic way of farming. From arms that bring them uncertainties with their families of the future, fears , and worst poverty, these rebel returnees use now plows , carabaos , and begun planting farm commodities of high valued like upland rice, corn, vegetables, and other crops on their own farms. In short , the bloody land turned to a green , healthy and abundant land true to Mindanao as the land of beauty and bounty . These commanders and followers of the MILF now becomes a busy farm entrepreneurs who works not anymore with the arms and bullets that killed several innocent civilians, but with the soil that brings them life, plants that nourishes not only their families but others needing nourishment in organic farming products , and livestock that give them not only life but abundance in the spirit of convergence and commitment for peace. This time a huge hectares of farmlots had been developed, fishponds, livestock and other forms of livelihood had been implemented that changes the lives of not only the Rebel returnees but also the poor members of the community indulged in farming and fishing.

The prime objective of the Project “ From Arms to Farms ” is definitely diminishing  the fangs of poverty and to bring back the confidence of the Muslims and Christians and Lumads in the area, and at the end bring ALL OUT PEACE in the area against the ALL OUT WAR declarations of the past.

This time, since 2011 until 2014, the difference is great, biases completely collapsed, MILF rebels started to return to the hands of the government, confidence build up is great, poverty incidence decreased from 79 % of 2009 to 47.5 % of 2013, and continued to lower with the confidence and commitment set. In short, PEACE and confidence is within the atmosphere of the municipality, a true peacepaths..

The strategies in meeting the needs and objectives is simple, a strong commitment of the Local Chief Executive who never end up a day without positive impacts of the PPAs , the strong determination and unwavering support of NGOs, POs , funding institutions, and all stakeholders of the program. And most of all, the participatory approach and the bottom up approach strategies where the people is consulted . Bottomline is participatory governance and strong commitment among stakeholders and beneficiaries that fears will be wiped out, that uncertainties overshadowed by hopes and positive results , and that Arms that leads to chaos and dis-integrations becomes farms that gives life, and help build strong confidence in building a brighter future, both Muslims and Christians and Lumads in the area.


In the implementation of the “ Arms to Farms “ Program , the following are tangible results and impacts:

  1. Increase in the rebel returnees to work with Organic farming from 4 commanders and 60 members to 100  With additional commanders as follows :
    • Commander Aguila
    • Commander Batman
    • Commander Cosain
  1. Decrease in poverty incidence from 79% of 2009 to 47.5 % of 2013;
  2. Increase in income of Rebel Returnees up to 50%
  3. Increase in income of poor farmers to 40%

ere is a tangible sign of peacefulness in the area with no ambushes, killings even sounds of guns & cannons , no evacuations experience due to human induced calamities , absence  of terrorists , no more cattle rustlings as experienced in the past. In short the outcome of the Program is Confidence and Peace….Our Muslim bothers and sisters are working with the Christian community with confidence and camaraderie . There is no more fears in going to the farmland hence MILF rebels and terrorist knows the seriousness of this administration in implementing plans and programs.

Another significant outcome of the Program is the increase in visits of other cities and municipalities in Kauswagan to experience  the significant changes and transformations of the municipality in bringing peace and bridging the gaps that divides , and in experiencing the significant increase in income among poor farmers, and how these arms turned to farms among our MILF rebel returnees.

Our people especially farmers are now beginning to shift its mentalities from DOLE OUT system to COST RECOVERY  schemes. Meaning, the amount or funds given to them as initial capital will be returned back  to the LGU without interest in a monthly bases and will be rolled out again to other farmers and fisherfolks. In short sustainability of the program is ascertain by this scheme while increasing income among he stakeholders.

Another significant outcome of the project is the increase in the confidence level and consciousness of young generations to indulged in farming especially the entrepreneurial side of it. Education plays a vital role, hence the increase in scholarship and enrolment in the established school in the municipality, the product of the Public-Private Partnership for Justice Peace and Development with the Assisi Development Foundation, Inc and the LGU is significant. The Dona Laureana School for Practical Agriculture in the area significantly changes the methodologies in simple farming to an entrepreneurial farming through organic agriculture.

It is here in this school where the minds and sentiments of MILF Rebels drastically changed. The capacity building made and the technology transfer both theory and practical made our MILF rebel returnees commanders and  members spent their time and concentration in organic farming. The following are the MILF Commanders scope of farmlands as of the present with the Arms to Farms Program :

  1. Commander Saidomar Mutia          –  developed 10 has Organic farmland planted  with  corn, peanut, coffee,upland rice, coconut, with livestocks
  1. Commander Mangundatu Limbuna –  developed almost 100 has planted with  Upland rice,     corn, fruit trees, potatoe with livestocks

3.  Commander Hadji Ismael Solaiman – developed almost 50 has planted with  upland rice, natural irrigation, fishpond With livestock

  1. Commander Benjie Lucsadatu –          developed 10 has, planted with corn, beans Upland rice, coffee , fishpond, With livestocks
  2. Other members of Rebel Returnees farms – developed 120 has farmland with  Developed fishponds,

Other significant Muslim leaders who successfully indulged in Organic farming :

  1. ABC Chairman Malik O. Macabato of Tingintingin, Kauswagan – developed 50 has  Planted with upland rice, vegetables, fruit trees,

Corn, coffee with developed fishpon

  1. Former SB Member Aga Dimakuta of Cayontor,Kauswagan – Developed 100 has   Farmlands, with livestock, fishpond, virgin forest,

Farms with upland rice, fruit trees, corn, coffee,  vegetables


Kauswagan , Lanao del Norte is one of the seven (7) out of 21 municipalities of Lanao del Norte which passes the Seal of Good Housekeeping – Silver. This means that the municipality passes the requirements of participatory good governance, transparency and good governance. This is due to the Local Government Unit’s Chief Executive commitment for accountable governance.

In the Arms to Farms Program, the community had been organized with the Assisi Development Foundation and the Municipal Agriculture Office leading the participatory governance. The Philippine Military also is active in organizing the Rebel returnees. In the SIKAD PA agenda of the present administration since 2010.. It is a mandate with this program and agenda to organize different sectors in the area, thus the Peacepaths workshops in the barangay level as a Bottom Up approach in planning and Budgeting is made with all stakeholders present. The voices of the small people is heard and given due emphasis. Community organizers were employed every barangay and immersed in the area to capacitate farmers, fisherfolks, and other informal sectors in the area including women, the senior citizens, the youths and the persons with disabilities. Organizations had been registered with proper agencies like the DOLE and SEC, and all of them participated in the planning process . Organizations are empowered in crafting and implementing policies of the organization.

There are about five to ten organizations organized in 13 barangays of the municipality. These organizations participated in the planning , budgeting, implementation and Monitoring of project implementations. They are given leeway in handling their affairs and they are given assistance for their livelihood where the organization will implement including the cost recovery schemes of funds extended for sustainability.

In special bodies like the Municipal Development Council, Local Peace and Order, Municipal Health Board, Local School Board and other mandated Boards and Council under RA 7160, the said organizations are well represented. What is more exciting in the people’s participation is that community now are actively participating in the identification of problems , needs analysis and has full participation in conflict resolutions and finding ways to solve problems of the community with the organization leading.

As a result, organizations with the Community organizers conducted its monthly meetings and evaluations, and resolve some issues involving their organizations and its role in the community. They were also active in giving reports and outputs of the project implementations. Officials and members fully participated. The following are the organizations organized in the barangay level with capacity building given on sustainable agriculture , entrepreneurial skills , and organizational management and sustainability :

  1. Womens Association
  2. Fisherfolks Association
  3. Farmers Association
  4. Barangay Water and Sanitation Association
  5. PWD Association
  6. Rebel Returnees Association;
  7. Peanut Producers Association
  8. Alternative / Herbal Medicine Producers Association;
  9. Peanut Processor’s Association;
  10. Food Processors Association
  11. Coco-Coir Producers Association
  12. Coco-Midrib Association;
  13. Conflict Mediators’ Associations



It is a common phrase to say that “  Necessity is the mother of all inventions “ . The MDG ( Millennium Development goal ) has to end by 2016. Not unless a Local Government Unit will innovate or evolve an immediate strategies, these MDGs such as lowering down of poverty incidence to a zero level , and other indicators under the MDG will become futile by 2016. There is a need to fast track things and innovation is a solution.

One of the most important innovations this Arms to Farms Program  made is the shifting of strategies from the bureaucratic level to a mass based level, or the BUB Process. Its easier to implement programs and projects if the community themselves identified it and has full participation in the process. From organizing , to capacitation, from implementation to monitoring and evaluation.

The LCE likewise has championed the entrepreneurial strategies, hence this skills is transferred to farmers and fisherfolks, to reinvent strategies that has no impact to a strategies with greater positive impacts. In immersing community organizers in the barangay level as one of the few innovations, the community felt sense of belongingness and importance and likewise they felt the seriousness of the government in implementing program and projects for the future of the community. The project implementation is based on the felt needs of the community especially the Rebel Returnees who knows from their experience that they are left behind from the relms of the society. One important innovation and strategy made for the success of the Arms to Farms Program is convergence strategies  with participatory approach. Meaning, the funding Agencies and NGOs or POs shall work as one in the implementation, monitoring and capacitating the community, not to work with their individual concepts and strategies.

In Kauswagan, the military, the LGU, the ADFI, all POs and NGOs, government funding institution sat down, talk , plan and implement together the projects. Unlike other places where there is competition in project implementation and the result is that community folks begun comparing implementing agencies to one another, the Arms to Farms Project is an indicator of an Innovative Governance, where sense of belongingness belongs to everybody, not to anybody.

The Local Chief Executive likewise, Hon. Rommel C. Arnado committed his services with utmost honesty, sincerity and compassion for the poor. He never stop searching avenues to help these poor people, farmers and fisherfolks and the Rebel Returnees hence he know that in giving them the quality of life, extremism will wipe out and sustainable peace and order shall be experience not only in Kauswagan but perhaps the whole of Mindanao because noble works radiates in the heart of the peace loving people.

Another concrete innovation  to sustain and make the project successful is to constantly erased in the minds of the community folks the virus of DOLE OUT system. The Project has cost recovery scheme for its sustainability and the community forks and stakeholders understand the essence of Cost Recovery Scheme rather that DOLE OUT mentalities. This system help so much is the sustainability of the project as an INNOVATION hence our people fully understand that their hands will not always be opened for alms and donations, but strategies to earn a living for a lifetime. We always believe in Kauswagan the important words from a famous write “ Do not give me fish to eat and to live for a day, but teach me how to fish to eat and earned a living for a lifetime “


The project had been sustained with the following strategies:

  1. Signing of a Memorandum of Agreement between the NGOs, POs, government agencies every 23rd day of April, the anniversary for SIKAD PA convergence;
  2. Approval of a Resolution declaring Organic Farming in the Municipality;
  3. Participatory Strategic Directions setting and planning with the officers of community organizations, the Rebel Returnees, the military and other stakeholders;
  4. Assignment of Community Organizers in every barangsy trained in community organizing strategies;
  5. Inclusion of Livelihood assistance and agriculture related funds for the Rebel Returnees and poor farmers and fisherfolks in the Long Term Development Plans down to the Annual Investment Plan and the 20 % MDF every planning and budgeting period.
  6. Continuation of a Cost Recovery Scheme in funds released for livelihood to be deposited in a Trust Fund of the LGU for sole utilization of Farming and Livelihood programs of the barangays and association;
  7. Formation of a multi-sector Project Evaluation and Monitoring Council made possible and sustainable though an Executive Order and Municipal Ordinance.


The project is easily transferrable and can be replicated in other places especially areas in Mindanao where the GPH and MILF accord is near to its realization. The clue is commitment, perseverance, convergence and community participation. The approach is simple but needs a long process and perseverance. Its simply first, community consultations where the community shall be given time to identify their problems and needs, and that the government agencies, funding institutions shall listen to these needs and problems and find avenues to solve it. Second, plan with the different stakeholders and beneficiaries in the spirit of convergence and participation, and Third, find convergence funds with government funding agencies, NGOS, POs, Private partners and never stop asking support even with the militaries, and last come up with an effective implementation plans and strategies with proper organizational structure to oversee the project cycle implementations and monitoring.

In the implementation of the Arms to Farms Program, there are a lot of problems encountered but given solutions such as:

  1. At first attempt of peacepath workshops only few attended because some are hesitant because they are doubtful of the seriousness of the government in implementing projects in barangays due to past bad experiences, but after several workshops, they participated because they know the government with the religious sector, Philippine Army , NGOs and POs are present;
  2. Some are hesitant to receive funds because they don’t understand the Cost Recovery Scheme, but later on with capacity building made, recipient are receptive of the program after finding out that the program has greater impact to farmers and others that needed funding assistance;


    Email : dionesio.fuentes@yahoo.com








In the years prior to 1521, the native Muslims occupied the coastal plains of the Province, now known as Lanao del Norte. Datu Elme M. Mohammad, a datu and prosperous fisherman by occupation believed to have come from Cabingan, Sulu who occupied more than half off these coastal plains. When the Spanish colonizers failed to conquer the whole southern part of the Philippines, the Americans proved otherwise by effectively gaining the support and confidence of the Moslems. Through negotiations with the local Moslem leaders, people particularly from Cebu and Bohol were encouraged to settle in the parts of Mindanao, presently known as Kauswagan. The influx of migrants particularly from the Visayas who intermingled with a small group of native Moslems without accompanying Moslems for it was only natural that the growing social milieu and diverse cultural heritage, customs, traditions and idiosyncrasies developed some tensions. But, as a whole, it has opened up previously uninhabited and richly endowed lands, thereby sowing the initial seed for development. The place settled-in by most of the settlers was known to be ‘KIADALICANAN”, but was later shortened to “ DALICANAN “ which literally means “ BEND “ . The settlers in this part were notably known to have come from Tudela, Misamis Occidental and said to have been led by the family of Restituto Cagas.

In July 1917, Dalicanan became the center of commerce and trade and was the most developed area. The Christian settlers renamed DALICANAN into KAUSWAGAN meaning “ Progress “ or “ Improvement “.  Kauswagan later on became the set of Local Government and Dalicanan just mere a sitio. Kauswagan during this period was a barrio under the municipality of Iligan its mother town, 21 kilometers away to the North East Coast.

August 21, marked the first wave of settlers from Tabuelan , Cebu. Due to the increasing need of the growing population for education, the municipality was able to put up a complete primary school with seven (7) grades in June of 1939 known as KauswaganPrimary School.

In 1947, Pedro Pernia,Sr., Ricardo Capa, Ancleto Conde and Rustico Pañares drafted the papers and complied the legal requirements for town’s separation from Iligan, as its mother municipality.

Then on April 25,1948, by virtue of Executive Order No. 126 duly signed by President Manuel A. Roxas, it was created into a regular municipality. However, there was no existing government building to house the municipal hall at that time, so a residential building owned by Eugenio Sombilon was utilized instead. Then Councilor Jose Q. Balazo became the first appointed Municipal Mayor, while Mr. Santiago Ramirez as the first appointed Vice Mayor and the first set of appointed councilors were:  Captain Joseph T. Sanguila, Sr., Mr. Vicrtoriano Rafols., Mr. Demetrio Balbez, Mr. Tanguraz Caorong, Atty. Francisco Tamargo and Hilarion Noro.

After  a few years, the Mohammad family donated a one hectare site for the construction of  the municipal building. It was during the incumbency of Mayor Joseph Sanguila, Sr., that a Masbate type building was constructed. But it was only during the incumbency of Mayor Valentine E. Tarroza,Sr., in 1975 that a two (2) storey municipal building worth Two Hundred  Thousand ( P 200,000.00 ) Pesos was put up.

Those who served as Municipal Mayors of Kauswagan from the time it was created up to present were the following :

  1. Jose Q. Balazo -April 25,1948 to March 1950       -Appointed
  2. Santiago Ramirez – March 1950 to April 20,1950      – do-
  3. Joseph T. Sanguila,Sr.- May 1950 to August 1951 – do-
  4. Vicctoriano Rafols – Sept. 1951 to Dec. 31,1951       – do-
  5. Joseph T. Sanguila,Sr.-Jan. 1952 to 1955 – Elected
  6. Teodulfo D. Maslog,Sr. -Jan. 1956-1959                – Elected
  7. Joseph T. Sanguila, Sr.-Jan. 1960 to 1963 -Elected
  8. Maximo P. Arnado, Sr. -Feb. 15,11979 to Apr.15,1986 -Elected
  9. Valentine E. Tarroza, Sr.-May 1974 to Feb. 12, 1979-Appointed
  10. maximo P. Arnado Sr. -Feb.15,1979 to Apr. 115,1986 -Elected
  11. Myron B. Rico -April 15,1986 to Dec. 1, 1987 -Des. OIC
  12. Joseph M. Sanguila,Jr.-Dec. 2, 1987 to Jan. 3,1988 -Designate
  13. Pantaleon T. Hontiveros,Sr.-Jan. 4, 1988 to Feb. 10, 1988 -do
  14. Myron B. Rico – Feb. 11,1988 to June 1998 – Elected as duly elected on Jan. 25,1988 – Local Elections, re-elected May 1,1992 and May      9, 1995
  15. Moh. Moamar Jack S. Maruhom – July 1, 1998 – May 11, 2007                                                                                           -Elected
  16. Yasser Hadji Hasan Samporna – June 30, 2007- June 30, 2010                                                                                                  – Elected
  17. Mastura I. Mananggolo – December 24, 2008 – Des. OIC
  18. Rommel C. Arnado           – As duly elected  May 2010- May 2013, May 2016 to  Present                                                          -Elected


 2.1 Geographic Location

Kauswagan is the second coastal municipality   of the Province of Lanao del Norte located near the Southern boundary. It lies on the mid-central portion of the Northwestern Mindanao coastline with a nautical grid coordinate off 8*deg 12” longitude and 124 deg. 5”east latitude. It is located twenty (20km) kilometers away from Iligan City; bounded on the North by Iligan Bay; on the East by Larapan River, which is the common boundary  with the Municipality of Linamon; on the south by the Municipality of Poona Piagapo and on the West by the Municipality of Bacolod with Rupagan River as the common boundary.

Land Area and Political Subdivision

Kauswagan’s total land area is 8,114.7462 hectares representing 2.0 % of the province’s total land area. It covers thirteen (13) barangays namely; Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Baraason, Cayontor, Delabayan, Inudaran, Kawit Occidental, Kawit Oriental, Libertad, Paiton, Tacub, Tingintingin, and Tugar. Of all these barangays, Baraason,Paiton,Tacub, and Delabayan, recorded with the largest land areas corresponding to 1,999.0198, 930.7431, 916.3676 and 695.2996 hectares respectively. All these three (4) barangays represented a combined 55.97% of the municipality’s total land area(refer to Table 1).

Table 1: Land Area by Barangay and Percentage to Total

Barangay Land Area  (has.)
Percent  (%)
BAGUMBAYAN 417.4169 5.14
BARAASON 1,999.0198 24.63
CAYONTOR 278.0236 3.43
DELABAYAN 695.2996 8.57
INUDARAN 355.7815 4.38
KAWIT OCCIDENTAL 542.9754 6.69
KAWIT ORIENTAL 535.9377 6.60
LIBERTAD 480.6066 5.92
PAITON 930.7431 11.47
POBLACION 49.4494 0.61
TACUB 916.3676 11.29
TINGINTINGIN 480.6675 5.92
TUGAR 432.4575 5.33
TOTAL 8,114.7462 100.00

Source : DENR, Regional Office                

 2.3 Soil Type

Basically, there are four (4) types of soils in the municipality, i.e. Hydrosol, Boac Clay Loam, Adtuyon       Clay Loam with stony phase and Adtuyom Clay Loam.

The Hydrosol type is an underwater surface covering an area of about 43.8196 hectares representing only 0.54% of the municipality’s total land area.  This type of soil is suitable for salt-  water fish culture.  The second type, Boac Clay Loam is suited for raising agricultural crops like coconut, abaca, banana and fruit productions, and constitutes 30.32% or 2,460.3911 hectares.  The third type, Adtuyon Clay Loam (stony phase) is found in about 3,129.0461 hectares or 38.56 %.  This soil is highly suitable for raising crops like coconut, corn, rootcrops, legumes, vegetables, peanuts & fruits.  The fourth type, Adtuyon Clay Loam covers an area of approximately 2,481.4894 hectares of 30.58 % and is suitable for raising diversified crops like the aforementioned ones (refer to Table No. 2).

Table 2: Soil Types and Area Coverage

Soil Type Area Coverage (ha.) Share to Total (%)
Hydrosol 43.8196 0.54
Boac Clay Loam 2,460.3911 30.32
Adtuyon Clay Loam with stony phase 3,129.0461 38.56
Adtuyon Clay Loam 2,481.4894 30.58
Total 8,114.7462 100.00

Source : Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2000 – 2010, Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte

2.4 Slope and Elevation

Located along the coastline of Iligan Bay with slopes of 0-8 % which are classified from level to very gently sloping, are the Poblacion and the barangays of Kawit Occidental, Kawit Oriental, Bagumbayan, Tacub and Libertad. These areas are utilized for urban development and agricultural production. In the Poblacion, infrastructure and facilities are heavily concentrated. Land covered by this slope is approximately 3,619.1768 hectares or 44.60 % of Kauswagan’s land area (see Table 3).

Table 3: Land Area by Elevation Ranges

Elevation Range (m.) Area Coverage (ha.) Share to total
Below 50 7,494.7796 92.36
Above 50 619.9666 7.64
Total 8,114.7462 100 %

Source :          MPDO Data Bank

Slopes ranging from 8.1 to 15% aggregate to about 410.5563 hectares or 6.80% of total land area. These are also utilized for agricultural production. Areas with steeper slopes of 15.1 and above cover 1,203.896 hectares. These are found in portions of Barangays Tingitingin, Baraason, Cayontor, Paiton and Delabayan. These barangays are characterized by sloping to strongly rolling to hilly slopes and are best for forest use and pasture.

Its elevations ranges roughly to Below and above 50.00 meters high ( See Tables 4a and 4b for details ).

Table 4: Slope and Area Coverages

Slope Ranges (%) Brief Description Area Coverage (has.) Share to total (%)
0.0-8.0 % Best for high-density urban development and intensive agriculture. 5,944.8631 73.26
8.1 – 15.0 % Also for limited urban development; limited arability for agricultural production. 551.8027 6.80
15.1 – 25.0 % Very limited arability 228.0243 2.81
25.1 – 50 % Suited for forest, pasture or grazing uses. 770.0894 9.49
Above 50 % Best suited for forest, pasture or grazing uses. 619.9667 7.64
Total   8,114.7462 100 %

Source : MPDO Data Bank





2.5 Geology

Generally, the geological pattern of the strata of land found in the area is not well defined.   Up to the present, there has been no survey to determine the presence of minerals in the area.   However, as reflected in the Geologic Map of Mindanao, Kauswagan falls under “QUP” classification of igneous rock formation (Refer to Table5).

Table 5: Main Landforms and Area Coverage





Area Coverage (has.) Share to Total (%)



Tidal flat, fishpond, fluvio-marine, level to nearly level 984.3187 12.13
Tidal flat, mangrove and nipa, fluvio-marine level 1,687.0557 20.79
Beach ridges and swales, fluvio-marine level 24.3442 0.30
Broad Alluvial Plains River terrace, alluvium .02% slope 1,896.4162 23.37
Andesitic hills, low relief 18% – 30% slope 1,625.3837 20.03
Andesitic hills, high relief 30% – 50% slope 1,354.3511 16.69
Volcanic Mountains Volcanic rocks, basalt, andesite, tuff 50% and above slope 542.8765 6.69
  TOTAL 8,114.7462 100.00

Source :           Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2000 – 2010


The town’s rich marine resources offer a favorable environment. Because of its strategic location along the IliganBay, Kauswagan is one of the fish and other aqua-marine products suppliers of the Province of Lanao del Norte and IliganCity. The coastal area of the municipality maintains a brackish water environment and the existence of of 6.0 hectares of Municipal Fish Sanctuary strategically located beside the Municipal Wharf covering the portions of the land area of Barangays Poblacion and Tugar that is favorable to breeding and growth of many pelagic and dimer Sal species. Recently, another two (2) hectares of newly established Marine Fish Sanctuary at Barangays Libertad and Bagumbayan. Its water is very rich in nutrient and its primary productivity is definitely sufficient to support high fishery production.

Seashells and corals are found abundantly along the area. These could be the potential raw materials for shell craft industry. Other living components found in the area are Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, etc.); mollusks (mussels, oysters, etc.); and other marine invertibrates like starfishes, sea cucumbers, jellyfishes, worms, etc.; marine plants like mangrove trees, seagrasses and seaweeds.    Based on the assessment of Kauswagan’s Coastal Environment conducted by DENR-ERDS Divers in 1995, the following existing resources were being indicated and recorded, to wit :

  • Coral Reef

 A total of nineteen (19) genera of hard and soft corals were identified in coral reefs of Kauswagan. The assessment recorded an average live coral cover of only 24.68% (poor), 25% of which were fair on the reef slopes at depth of 30 feet. While at a shallower portion of the reef, it showed an average live coral cover of only 13.86% (poor). Most of the sampled stations recorded a high percentage of dead coral cover. This manifest the effects of both natural and man-made induced stress, such as destruction caused by Acanthaster Planci (crown of thorns starfish), blast fishing and other destructive fishing methods. Generally, the conditionof the reefs in the municipality of Kauswagan showed to be in poor condition except Barangay Kawit which showed a fair condition on the 15 feet line. On the 30 feet transect line level, reefs in the municipality showed also poor to fair condition except for Barangay Tugar which showed good live coral cover. Approximately, there is about 8.33% of the area sampled having a good cover, 50% fair and another 41.67% poor coral cover on the reef slope (30 feet) while 33.33% having fair cover and 66.67% poor coral cover along the whole stretch of the municipality. The great destruction of coral reef in Barangay Libertad could be attributed to destructive effect of siltation coming from the river bank. The rest of the reef showed the effect of dynamite fishing, cyanide fishing and the tremendous effect of the crown-of-thorns over population on the coral reef.

  • Sea Grass Communities

 There are seven (7) species of Seagrasses identified in the coastal waters of Kauswagan, namely : Cymodocea     Serrulata, Cymodocea Rotunda, Enhalus Acroides, Halophila Minor, Halophila Ovalis, Halodule Pinifolia and Thalasia Hem           Prochi. Among the seven species, the most ecologically dominant was Cymodocea Serrulata with an ED value of 0.169825      followed by Cymodocea Rotunda with an ED value of 0.041173.

  • Mangrove Forest

 There are about twenty one (21) hectares of mangrove present along the coastal beaches and waters of Kauswagan. Of the 21 hectares, 50% had been destroyed due to illegal cutting and the development of fishponds. With the depletion of mangroves because of some industrial and domestic activities, The Local Government Unit of Kauswagan with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR-10) through its Coastal Environment Protection Program (CEPP)  initiated the rehabilitation and development of some destructed mangrove areas for mangrove culture. In so doing, the production of such species grown into a tremendous volume hence through rehabilitation and development of mangrove resources, fishes of different varieties could take shade and propagate under the marine sanctuary of magroves where Zooplanktons are present and needed for fry survival of different varieties. Four (4) species of Mangrove are found in the area namely: Sonneratia Alba (PAGATPAT), Rhizopora Apiculata (BAKAUAN LALAKI), Avecenia Alba (PIAPI) and Avecenia Officinales (API-API). The assessment indicates the dominant of PAGATPAT (Sonneratia Alba) in Kauswagan. However, its projected regeneration per hectare is very low. In the year 2007 – 2009 the Municipal Agriculture Office in the leadership of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources ( DENR – 10) sustainably conducted a massive Mangrove Reforestation along the Coastal Barangays with the active participation of the concerned Barangay Officials and Fisherfolks Organizations and successfully replanted about more or less six (6) hectares of the deforested areas

  • Coral Life Forms and Associated Species

The assessment of fishes associated with corals and seagrasses communities yielded fifteen (15) families with Pomacentridae having the greatest number of species. Thirty-two (32) species of seaweeds were identified. Seven (7) species belong to green seaweed phyla (Chorophycea), six (6) belong to brown seaweeds phyla (Phaeophyla), and nineteen (19) species belong  to the red seaweeds phyla (Rhodophyta). Chaetomorpha crassa seaweed was the most dominant seaweeds species with an ED value of 0.425995 followed by nospora implexa with an ED value of 0.011815.

The seagrasses beds surved showed the effects of industrialization. Despoliation of the destructive effects are        includes waste dumping and siltation affecting the fragile ecosystem. Uncontrolled cutting of mangrove trees were so           rampant and instead of mudflat artificial structures and houses abound in the area. These probable causes of destruction          and threats were noted in order to provide basis of conservation and management policy formulation for the coastal resources.



          The greater portion of the total land area of Kauswagan is devoted to agriculture covering an area of approximately 5,313.0818 hectares. This gives a share of about 88 percent of the total area of the Municipality which is 6,037.5929 hectares. These agricultural lands are 100 percent planted to coconut, however, approximately 500 hectares or 9.41 percent currently intercropped with other agricultural crops like corn, legumes, banana, vegetables, fruits, and cacao/coffee.

As the greater portion of the land area was devoted to agriculture, the part of the coastal area where mangrove trees dominate and caters the propagation for endemic species was considered as Protected and recognized by Protected Area Management Board (PAMB)(see Table7).


    • Storm Surges

storm surge is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of  rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extra tropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, and the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. The vulnerable areas are the seven (7) coastal barangays namely Kawit Occidental, Kawit Oriental, Tugar, Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Tacub and Libertad(see Table 8).



  • Tsunami

Related to earthquakes are giant sea waves called tsunamis. These occur when the earthquake is shallow-seated and strong enough to displace parts of the seabed and disturb the water above. The study area specifically the Kauswagan Coastal Zone is thought to be excluded from areas in the country that are highly vulnerable to tsunamis. But then the municipality well take all precautionary measures in case change of events may happen.


By far, flooding appears to have greatest impact on the study area. The most flood-prone portions are the coastal area and the floodplains of its four major rivers, namely, Kawit Occidental,  Kawit Oriental, Tugar,Tacub, and Libertad. The estuaries of these rivers are likewise flood-prone areas. Abnormal heavy precipitation and wave surges enable base level increase on areas in and around estuaries like riverbanks, coastal plains and swamps. During storm, low pressure and other weather disturbance that may causes heavy raining it will lead to coastal flooding. Damage is great when accompanied by typhoon and riverine flooding.


Coastal area of, Brgy. Kawit Occidental is

susceptible to coastal flooding and erosion.


Portions of the sea scape was heavily damaged by coastal

flooding 2-3 yrs ago.

Flooding is common in Brgy. Kawit Oriental especially during heavy precipitationin which the most affected areas are Purok1.

 5.4 Mass Movement

 Mass movement is basically the downslope movement of soil, debris or rock. It usually occur when the shear stress exceeds the shear strength of material and are usually occurring in the inherent property of the geological structures, i.e., plane of weaknesses, orientation of bedding plane, fault, and joint. Majority of mass movement/slope failures/landslides occur during times of heavy rain. Effective stress is reduced by an increase in water pressure and there is a consequent reduction in resistance to shear. Mass movement occurs with increasing frequency in areas having progressively steeper slope angles thus creating landslide.

Utililizing these parameters, parts of Brgys. Inudaran, Tacub, Bagumbayan, Tugar, Paiton, Delabayan, Tingintingin, Libertad, Kawit Occidental and Kawit Oriental, are marked medium and high susceptibility for landslides.

Mialonod river landslide in barangay Inudaran and in barangay Tingintingin


5.5 Liquefaction

Liquefaction is a process that transforms the behaviour of cohesion-less soil from solid to liquid. This is due to a sudden decrease in shearing resistance caused by collapse associated with a temporary increase in pore fluid pressure. As a result, the cohesion-less soil, basically sand, which depends on the effective stress between grains to mobilize shear strength, loses its strength completely and begins to flow like a fluid.

Liquefaction principally affects loosely packed, highly porous and water-saturated fine to very fine sand located in vast plains, most especially if situated in close proximity to earthquake generators. Liquefaction usually occurs within 30 mgs and where water table is close to the surface.

In the study area, the rock units potentially liquefiable by earthquakes are the alluvial deposits. In general, they are composed of loose, fine-grained sand, and with shallow groundwater level.

Moreover, field survey shows that the area and its surrounding is characterized by saturated soil deposits which may likely be derived from river and/or lake sedimentation, debris/residual deposition, or wind deposition. These materials are very susceptible to liquefaction.



Kauswagan has thirteen (13) barangays and of its current total population of 23,087 as  of July 2007 Census of Population Official Report conducted by the National Statistics Office, barangay Poblacion recorded to be The highest population of 4,456 giving a share of nearly 20%.  This is followed by barangays Libertad, Tacub and Bagumbayan with population of more than 3,000each representing, more than 12% to 14% shares. The nine other barangays posted an average bottom population of 707 and less with Paiton registering the lowest at  638 which is barely 2.76 % of the total;


  • It has only two barangays which is currently classified as its urban area, the Poblacion and Bagumbayan. Out of the current total population of the municipality, population in the urban area is only7,640 constituting33.09% of the total population and the rest are considered rural population as of year 2007.
  • The males that totalled 12,815 or 55.52% outnumbered the females that numbered 10,272 or 44.49% out of the municipality’s 23,087 total population.  Compared to the male-female distribution in 2005, the latest Survey posted a  relatively similar results in percentage share of the males and females.  Indeed the sex ratio for 2007 is placed at 125 males per 100 females.
  • Kauswagan’s current population belonging to the broad age group of  0-14 years40.64% of total.  The productive age group of 15-64 years comprised 12,911 or 55.92 %, while the oldest age group of 85 years and above is 51 or 0.22 %
  • Has greater population in the younger age

bracket particularly on age groups 5-9 with 3,415 or 14.79% share, followed by 0-4 and  10-14 with percent contribution of 14.28 % and 11.65 %, respectively.  While age groups with least population are noted in the older population like 85 and over, 80-84, 75-79, 70-74 and 65-69 with their respective share of 0.22 %, 0.28%, 0.54 %, 0.96 % and 1.36 %.

  • The municipality of Kauswagan has a favourable population density.  As of year 2007 , it only posted a gross density of 3.82 persons per hectare, a little bit increase since 2005 which was 3.53.
  • The most dominant ethnic group, with 14,290 population constituting 77.181% of total, is the Cebuano since they are the pioneer settlers in the municipality. This is followed by the Maranao being the inhabitants of the place and the Boholano, the second settlers in the town, with populations of 3,918 or 20.655% and 246 or 0.643% respectively.
  • It is a predominantly Christian Community having 19,803 or 85.78 % of its total population. These Christian populace are belonging to the Roman Catholic Church which has numerous followers constituting 12,813 or 68.47% and various protestants religions like the Aglipay, Iglesia ni Kristo, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Church of Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Jehovas Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventist, Assemblies of God, different Baptist Congregations, Philippine Benevolent Missionaries, Salvation Army of the Philippines, Alliance of Bible Christian Committee and other Evangelical Churches which summing up all together, constitute 32.28 % of the total Population of the Municipality (see Table 12).


Census Year Population Difference

( Increase/Decrease)

Average Annual

Growth Rate (%)

1948 11,095
1960 12,636 1,541 1.09
1970 12,316 (320) -0.26
1975 9,556 (2,760) -4.95
1980 13,875 4,319 7.74
1990 16,961 3,086 2.03
1995 18,349 1,388 1.59
2000 15,364 (2,985) -3.25
2007 23,087 7,723 7.18


6.1 Population Projection

With the visibly improving economic situation and anticipation of the realization of the Cagayan – Iligan Corridor (CIC) Industrialization Plan, the population of Kauswagan is still expected to grow steadily at a slow pace. Using the geometric method by utilizing the 2000 and 2007 Municipal population per NSO reports, population growth rate is projected to stood at 1.80 % annually for the next 10 years (see Table 6A).

Table 6A: Projected Population Growth, 2007 – 2015

Census Year Population Difference of Increase Average Annual Growth Rate (%)
2001 –  2007  












2007– 2015






Source :    MPDO  Evaluation.

The municipality has a total of 4,536 Households as of the latest 2007 Census of Population conducted by the National Statistics Office. It reveals that barangay Poblacion has the greatest number of households which is 863 constituting almost 20%, followed by barangays Bagumbayan, Libertad and Tacub with 650 (14.33%), 614 (13.54%) and 598 (13.18 %), respectively.  Barangay Tingintingin is reported as the smallest number of household with only 117 or 2.58%, followed by barangays Inudaran and Paiton with 124 (2.73%)  and 138 (3.04%), respectively.

Considering the municipality’s population of the same year and its total households, Kauswagan has an average household size of 5.10 members.  Barangay Tingintingin has the largest average at 7.02, while Cayontor has the smallest average at 4.24  members.

Table 14 shows the projected population of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte for the years 2007 – 2020 using low, medium, high growth scenarios



(0.29 )


( 14.28 )


( 18.85 )

2007 23,087 23,087 23,087
2010 23,981 33,671 36,835
2015 25,528 59,396 73,394
2020 27,175 104,775 146,238

6.2 Population by Urban-Rural

Kauswagan has only two barangays which is currently classified as its urban area, the Poblacion and Bagumbayan. Out of the current total population of the municipality, population in the urban area is only 8,057 constituting30.66% of the total population and the remaining 69.34% or 18,221 are considered rural population.

Basing on the afore-mentioned population data, the municipal urbanization level is almost 32% (refer to Table 15).

 Table 8: Urban-Rural Population and Percent Distribution: 2015

Area Classification Population Percent (%) Distribution
Urban Area 8,057 30.66
Rural Area 18,221 69.34
TOTAL 26.278 100%

 The Urbanization Annual Growth Rate from census year 2010 and the latest projection 2014 showed a growth rate 0.10 % for the Urban Areas while 1.89% for the Rural Areas. Therefore the Tempo of Urbanization is the difference of 1.89% and 0.10 % which is exactly1.00% for the municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte (see Table .

 Table 9: Urban-Rural Population and Annual Growth Rate  2010– 2014

Area Classification POPULATION Annual Growth Rate

( % )

2010 2014
Urban Area 8,094 8,126 0.10
Rural Area 16,063 17,282 1.89
Total 24,006 25,050
Tempo of Urbanization 1.00

 6.3 Population by Number of Households

The municipality has a total of 5,658 Households as of the latest 2014 NSO Projected Population. It reveals that barangay Poblacion has the greatest number of households which is 958 constituting almost 20%, followed by barangays Bagumbayan, Libertad and Tacub with 730 (12.40%), 794 (13.93%) and 700 (12.07 %), respectively.  Barangay Paiton is reported as the smallest number of household with only 218 or 3.79%, followed by barangays  Cayontor and Tingintingin with 227 (3.69%)  and 206 (3.62%), respectively.

Considering the municipality’s population of the same year and its total households, Kauswagan has an average household size of 4.49 or 5 members.  Barangay Delabayan has the largest average at 5.09, while Paiton has the smallest average at 315  members (see Table 17).

 Table 10: Total Population, Household Population

and Average Household Size: 2014

Barangay Total Population Household Population Average HH Size
BAGUMBAYAN 3263 730 5.00
BARAASON 1,147 232 5.00
CAYONTOR 866 227 4.00
DELABAYAN 2,024 397 5.00
INUDARAN 783 265 3.00
KAWIT OCCIDENTAL 1,107 337 3.00
KAWIT ORIENTAL 1,525 307 5.00
LIBERTAD 3,506 794 4.00
PAITON 687 218 3.00
POBLACION 4,863 958 5.00
TACUB 3,204 700 5.00
TINGINTINGIN 887 206 4.00
TUGAR 1,182 287 4.00
TOTALS 25,408   5,658 4.49


6.4 Population by mother tongue/ethnic groups, sex and percentage(%) distribution

Kauswagan can be considered a melting pot in the province of Lanao del Norte.  As such, the presence of several ethnic groups is eminent considering the strategic location of the Municipality to some neighbouring provinces and cities in the country particularly Iligan City, the regional Industrial Hub of the South.

The most dominant ethnic group, with 14,290 population constituting 77.181% of total, is the Cebuano since they are the pioneer settlers in the Municipality.  This is followed by the Maranao being the inhabitants of the place and the Boholano, the second settlers in the town, with populations of 3,918 or 20.655% and 246 or 0.643% respectively (see Table 18).

Table 11: Population by mother tongue/ethnic groups,sex and percentage(%)distribution: 2007

Mother Tounge / Ethnic Groups Both Sexes M a l e F e m a l e
  Population Percent Population Percent Population Percent
Abaknon 129 0.005 129 0.005 0 0
Aklanon 130 0.011 130 0.011 0 0
Badjao, Sama Dilant 130 0.011 130 0.005 0 0.006
Bikol 134 0.033 133 0.028 1 0.005
Boholano 246 0.643 177 0.267 69 0.376
Bontok 132 0.022 130 0.011 2 0.011
Butuanon 131 0.016 130 0.011 1 0.005
Caviteño-Characano 131 0.016 130 0.011 1 0.005
Cebuano 14,290 77.181 7,380 39.522 6,910 37.659
Cotabateño-Chavacano 136 0.044 134 0.033 2 0.011
Davao-Chavacano 137 0.050 132 0.022 5 0.028
Hiligaynon, Ilonggo 169 0.224 156 0.153 13 0.071
Ibaloi 131 0.016 129 0.005 2 0.011
Ibanag 129 0.005 128 0 1 0.005
Ilanun 129 0.005 129 0.005 0 0
Ilocano 148 0.110 141 0.071 7 0.039
Ilongot 136 0.044 132 0.022 4 0.022
Ivatan/Itbayat 129 0.005 129 0.005 0 0
Kapampangan 130 0.011 129 0.005 1 0.006
Karaga 130 0.01 128 0 2 0.011
Kasiguranin 131 0.016 130 0.011 1 0.005
Kalibugan 141 0.071 137 0.049 4 0.022
Maguindanao 130 0.011 130 0.011 0 0
Manobo 134 0.033 129 0.005 5 0.028
Maranao 3,918 20.655 2,035 10.393 1,883 10.262
Masbateño 129 0.005 128 0 1 0.005
Negrito 147 0.104 134 0.033 13 0.071
Subanon 130 0.011 129 0.005 1 0.006
Subanun 140 0.065 132 0.022 8 0.043
Tagalog 153 0.136 142 0.076 11 0.060
Tausug 132 0.022 130 0.011 2 0.011
Waray 136 0.044 133 0.028 3 0.016
Zamboangeño-Chavacano 142 0.076 136 0.043 6 0.033
Chinese 129 0.005 128 0 1 0.005
Other Local Dialects 152 0.131 147 0.104 5 0.027
Other Foreign Dialects 131 0.016 131 0.016 0 0
Not Stated 153 0.136 141 0.071 12 0.065
Total 23,087 100% 13,979 60.55 % 9,108 39.45 %

 6.5 Population Density

Currently, the municipality of Kauswagan has a favorable population density.  As of year 2015, it only posted a gross density of 3.24 persons per hectare, a little bit lower since 2007 which was 3.82

In the urban areas namely: Poblacion and Bagumbayan, although Bagumbayan  reached a density of 7.88 and 8.92 persons per hectare in 2007 and 2015, respectively, it is still within the bracket of area with low population density.  While in the rural areas which composed of all barangays outside Poblacion and Bagumbayan having an aggregate land area of 7,647.8799 hectares has likewise posted a very low gross population density compared to the urban areas.  With its total population of 18,671 in 2015, the rural population density in the municipality is only 2.38 persons per hectare and increased slightly to 3.24 with its total population of 26,278 in 2015 (see Table 19).

 Table 12: Net Population Density by Barangay: 2015

Barangay Population Area (ha) Persons / ha
1.   Poblacion               4,331 49.4494 87.58
2.   Bagumbayan 3,726 417.4169 8.92
3.   Baraason 1,318 1,999.0198 0.66
4.   Cayontor 902 278.0236 3.24
5.   Delabayan 2,582 695.2996 3.71
6.   Inudaran 841 355.7815 2.36
7.   Kawit Occidental 1,141 542.9754 2.10
8.   Kawit Oriental 1,378 535.9377 2.57
9.   Libertad 4,036 480.6066 8.40
10. Paiton 917 930.7431 0.99
11. Tacub 2,754 916.3676 3.01
12. Tingintingin 1274 480.6675 2.65
13. Tugar 1,078 432.4575 2.49
TOTAL 26,278 8114.7462 3.24

 6.6 Religious Affiliation

 It has been observed that Kauswagan is a predominantly Christian Community having 19,803 or 85.78 % of its total population. These Christian populace are belonging to the Roman Catholic Church which has numerous followers constituting 12,813 or 68.47% and various protestants religions like the Aglipay, Iglesia ni Kristo, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Church of Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Jehovas  Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventist, Assemblies of God, different Baptist Congregations, Philippine Benevolent Missionaries, Salvation Army of the Philippines, Alliance of Bible Christian Committee and other Evangelical Churches which summing up all together, constitute 32.28 % of the total Population of the Municipality.

On the other hand, only 3,284 or 16.54% are Muslims who are devoted Followers of Islam, while 254 or 0.03  % falls under the category of other religions not specifically stated (see Table 20).


RELIGIOUS GROUPS Both Sexes M a l e F e m a l e
Population Percent Population Percent Population Percent
Roman Catholic 12,813 68.47 8,147 35.290 4,666 33.180
Aglipay 1,500 6.82 773 3.350 727 3.470
Islam 3,284 16.54 1,946 8.430 1,338 8.110
Iglesia ni Cristo 510 1.42 164 0.710 346 0.710
United Church of Christ in the Phils 612 1.98 233 1.010 379 0.970
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints 504 0.03 5 0.020 499 0.020
Jehovah’ Witness 769 0.12 14 0.060 755 0.060
Phil. Benevolent Missionaries Ass’n 675 2.32 261 1.130 414 1.190
Seventh Day Adventist 251 0.01 126 0.005 125 0.005
Baptist Conference of the Phils 273 0.13 150 0.065 1 0.065
Bible Baptist 250 0.005 0.000 250 0.005
Southern Baptist 320 0.39 51 0.220 1 0.160
Other Baptists 250 0.005 12 0.005 30 0.010
Alliance of Bible Christian Comm 358 0.59 67 0.290 251 0.310
Assemblies of God 251 0.01 0 56 0.010
Salvation Army, Phils. 281 0.17 14 0.060 2 0.110
Other Evangelical Churches 328 0.43 427 0.185 20 0.245
Others 0 0 45 0.195
Not Stated 254 0.03 5 0.020 2 0.010
Totals 23,087 100 % 11,791 51.070 % 8,978 48.930%



7.1 Power

The electricity of the locality is provided by the Lanao del Norte Electric Cooperative (LANECO). Currently, around 4,049 constituting 89.26% out of 4,536 household are already served with electricity for the thirteen (13) barangays of the Municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte.

 Table 14: Electrification Coverage by Barangay: 2015

BARANGAYS TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS Number of  HHs w/ Electrical Connections Percent to total Households
BAGUMBAYAN 730 730 100
BARAASON 232 232 100
CAYONTOR 227 227 100
DELABAYAN 397 397 100
INUDARAN 265 265 100
KAWIT OCC. 337 337 100
KAWIT ORIENTAL 307 307 100
LIBERTAD 794 794 100
PAITON 218 218 100
POBLACION 958 958 100
TACUB 700 700 100
TINGINTINGIN 206 206 100
TUGAR 287 287 100
All Barangays 5,658 5658 100



          Freshwater supply of the municipality are acquired from both surface and ground water sources such springs naturally provided by 6 major and 3 minor water bodies traversing the territorial jurisdiction of the locality. Likewise, underground water are visible in the 13 barangays of the municipality usually utilized as deep-well and artesian well (see Table 22).

Table 15: Total Number of Households with Access to Potable Water: 2016

Barangay Number of


Number of Households With Access to Safe Water Percent
Bagumbayan 810 810.00 100%
Baraason 209 146.30 70%
Cayontor 201 100.50 50%
Delabayan 495 495.00 100%
Inudaran 174 174.00 100%
Kawit Occidental 338 338.00 100%
Kawit Oriental 302 302.00 100%
Libertad 792 792.00 100%
Poblacion 846 846.00 100%
Paiton 213 85.20 40%
Tacub 629 629.00 100%
Tugar 274 274.00 100%
Tingintingin 206 206.00 100%
13 5,489 5,198.00 89.23%


  • Surface Run-off.

Most volume of surface water are found at the 6 interior barangays and selective coastal barangays which are the primary sources of water for the existing water springs along the rivers and creeks.

  • Groundwater Resources.

The residents of the coastal barangays are mostly dependent to ground water resources which are utilized as sources for domestic water requirements brought about by stored water from the watershed areas.



 7.3 Transportation

 Transportation and mobility of Kauswagan is provided by  transport companies like the Mindanao Rural Trasnsport Inc. (MRTI)  and Super Five Transport Company for the Buses; Kauswagan Transport Drivers/ Operators Association(KATDOA) for the Public Utility Vehicles and Kauswagan Tricycle Operators and Drivers Association (KATRODA) for the tricycles. Buses will be providing transportation bound from Iligan City to Zamboanga and Dipolog Cities and vice-versa; Public Utility Jeepneys will be providing transportation bound from Kauswagan to Iligan City and vice-versa, while the tricycles and e-trykes will be providing transportation  bound within the territorial jurisdiction of Kauswagan.

Table 16: Transport Services: 2016

Line Route Availability / Frequency No. of Units Classification

bus, PUJ, Taxi, Tricycle, e-Tryke


Kauswagan Line

Kauswagan – Iligan City & vice-versa Once 15 minutes  




Barangay  Line 7 Coastal Barangays Once every 5 minutes  



Tricycle, e-Tryke

Aurora Line Iligan – Pagadian& vise versa Once every 30 minutes






TOTAL 187  

7.4  Information Technology and CommunicationThere are four (4) identifiedtelecommunication companies operating in Kauswagan with facilities mostly installed  in Barangay Poblacion such as Smart, Globe, PLDT and Mobiline. Telecommunication Towers are situated in strategic areas of Poblacion (refer to Table 17).

Table 17: Location of Telecom Facility- 2016









Municipal Hall Compound, Poblacion, Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte





Mohammad Street, Poblacion, Kauswagan, LDN





Maslog Street Extension, Poblacion, Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte





Mohammad Street, Poblacion, Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte


7.5 Solid Waste Facility

The Municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte is consistently implementing its Integrated Solid Waste Management Program since year 1997. Though there were issues and problems encountered several times during its implementation,  still the spirit of excellence in terms of public  service still prevailed. The program of operation and  management  is characterized into five (5) components such as : Waste Generation; On-site Handling, Storage and Processing; Collection and Transport; Processing and Resource Recovery; and Solid Waste treatment and Final Disposal.

  1. Waste Generation

The municipality was able to collect a 1 metric ton per week through a rough estimate of the Municipal Engineering Office. Approximately 60% of the total waste generated of the Municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte came from  barangays Poblacion and Bagumbayan since this is the considered urban barangays of the municipality and the remaining 40% mostly contributed by the other coastal barangays. The interior barangays are not included in the estimated waste generation because garbage collection is not available in such barangays. Major wastes generated came from the Kauswagan Public Market where commercial activities are concentrated. A mixed biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes are commonly the generated waste as residues of the active commercial activities of the coastal barangays. These kind of wastes are also visible even in the household levels. Other types of wastes generated are coming from different institutions both private and government found at  the coastal barangays. However, agricultural wastes are most visible in the interior areas of the municipality where farming is the leading livelihood activities.

  1. Onsite Handling, Storage and Processing

 The municipality had already established systems on wastes handling, storage and processing brought about by massive education campaign provided by the Education Committee of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Program ( ISWMP ) of the Local Government Unit of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte. Garbage Receptacles are already available in the commercial and institutional establishments and puroks of the barangays most specifically in the coastal areas. In the interior areas, there are also indigenous designed receptacles situated in the strategic places where people used to converged.  The households are also allocating containers for their household residues.

  1. Collection and Transport

 The collection and transport of Waste generated in the municipality is being shouldered by the Municipal Government as part of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Program who utilizes a 2 unit Heavy Duty Dump Truck for Garbage Collection through active involvement by the Municipal Engineering Office Personnel. Recently, the Collection Services has temporarily suspended due to the unavailable dumping site but it is later on re-activated after the completion of the Material Recovery Facility construction.

  1. Processing and Resource Recovery

 There are limited practices available on Resource Recovery in the municipality. Most of them are the Reuse, Refuse and Composting practices. Reuse for those non-biodegradable wastes such as cellophanes and other packing materials, refuse for the household left-overs which are usually serves as feeds for the domestic pets, and composting for biodegradable wastes specially  agricultural waste which are transformed into fertilizers. With  the availability of the Material Recovery Facility processing and resource recovery are organized in one venue, the MRF.

  1. Solid Waste Treatment and Final Disposal

The generated solid wastes is segregated in the collection process and transported into the MRF where segregated  solid wastes are placed in its assigned segregated room in the MRF building specially the reusables and recyclables. The bio-degradable waste are placed in the compost pit and the remaining wastes are dump into the dumping area within the MRF perimeter.

  • Port

Kauswagan has three (3) ports located at Barangays Libertad ,Tacub and Poblacion.Tacub Port with an estimated length of 150 linear meters was previously utilized as landing of various commercial ships hauling coconut oil from the Iligan Bay Manufacturing Corporation (IBMC) located near the port of the same barangay we back 19880’s but after the shutdown of the IBMC until now the port had just became a rest and recreational place for beach goers in the barangay. The Poblacion Port which has  an estimated length of more  or less 500 linear meters, the  longest port in the region is closely similar use of the Tacub Port except that said port sometimes become fishport of some commercial fishing boats occasionally landed to transport fish  catched.

The present Libertad Port is a private port used by the operation of the GN POWER Ltd Co. soon to operate in the year 2018. A 540 MW Coal Fire Powered Plant.

7.7 Public Market

 The Kauswagan Public Market in Barangay Poblacion is the common market of the municipality. The coastal  barangays had an indigenous public  markets locally known as TALIPAPA where limited display of agricultural products are  in placed but only two of which are operational as of the moment. The Kauswagan Public Market is administered by the MEEDO Personnel financially subsidized by the LGU – Kauswagan. There are more or less 10 Block Tiendas and 20 Stalls located within the Market site. It also hosted Jeepney and tricycle terminals. Every Saturday a Market Day is held in the site since year 2002 until the present.


          8.1 Structure of Economy

The Municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte has suited the three (3) Sectoral Economic Activity such as the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary though are equally distributed to the employed residents. It shows that the Primary Sector has a great number of employed constituting 44.00% followed by the Tertiary Sector which has 33.00% and lesser to Secondary Sector which has only 23.00% (refer to table 53). Comparing the 2009 and 2014 employment sharing for the 3 Economic Sector resulted a Shift Points of 0.00% meaning there are balanced shifting between the 3 sectors (refer to Table 25 and Table 26).

Table 18: Economic Activity by Sector  by Employment

and Percentage (%) Distribution: 2014

Sector/Activity Employment Percent of Total
Primary 5,533 44.00 %
Agriculture 2,138 17.00
Fishing 2,892 23.00
Forestry 503 4.00
Secondary 2,892 23.00 %
Manufacturing 128 1.02
Construction 1,761 14.00
Mining and Quarrying 503 4.00
Electricity, Gas and Water 629 5.00
Tertiary 4,150 33.00 %
Wholesale/Retail Trade 2,142 9.00
Transportation, Storage and Communication 1,190 5.00
Community, Social and Personal Services 2,137 8.98
Finance/Insurance/Real Estate and  Business 2,142 9.00
Others NEC
Total 12,575 100.00

 Table 19: Structural Shift in the Local Economy – 2014

2009 % SHARE 2014 %SHARE
PRIMARY 811 43.57 5,533 44.00 0.43
SECONDARY 428 23.00 2,892 23.00 0.00
TERTIARY 622 33.42 4,150 33.00 0.00
TOTALS 1,861 100.00 12,575 100.00 0.00



The primary sector is composed of basic type of occupation visibly observed in the municipality such as Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry disaggregated to the 13 barangays of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte

  1. Agricultural Crops andCrop production

There are about 7,198.24 hectares or 96.00% of the municipal total land  area that are devoted to agricultural developments specially crop productions. Currently, the municipality is embarking  only a Permanent Crops with specific planted areas such as : Coconut ( 5,133.00 has. ); Upland Rice ( 200.0000 has.); Corn (2,177.0000 has.); Other crops (304.0000 has.). Seasonal Crops is very much rear to the municipality because it is observed  non-profitable for farmers.

Table 20: Area Planted to Seasonal and Permanent Crop –  2016

Crop Area Planted (ha) Percent of Total
1. Seasonal Crops

Non- irrigated rice





2. Permanent Crops

























Total Crop Area






  1. Livestock & Poultry

 There are a total of 11,091 heads of livestock and  poultry animals in the locality as of year 2013. The large number of such belongs to the chicken which has 6,486 heads  followed by goat which has 1,361 heads. Comparatively, in the succeeding 3 years 2013 is observed to have high animal population while 2010 is much lesser compared to 2011 and 2012 (refer to table 56). Greater number of animal distribution is observed in the rural barangays in the coastal areas such as Tugar,  Kawit Oriental,Tacub, Libertad and Kawit Occidental while the urban Barangays of Poblacion and Bagumbayan only got higher animal population for hog / swine (refer Table 27 and Table 28).

 Table 21: Livestock and Poultry Population

by Selected Years: 2013– 2016



2013 2014 2015 2016
Carabao 398 361 330 435
Cattle 715 1,044 982 1,203
Chicken 6,486 17,703 19, 037 19,037
Duck 656 799 835 835
Hog 764 700 520 520
Goat 1,391 2,425 2,429 2,757
TOTALS                   10,410 23,032 24,133 24,787


Table 22: Distribution of Animal Population

Per Barangay (Backyard Basis): 2016



Animal population
Carabao Cattle Goat Swine Duck Chicken Dog
BAGUMBAYAN 45 143 370 189 93 4,060 620
BARAASON 40 83 186 0 54 1,180 28
CAYONTOR 36 82 96 0 25 1,135 16
DELABAYAN 108 135 130 0 20 1,198 41
INUDARAN 22 68 84 3 12 1,325 40
KAWIT OCC 15 66 190 35 42 1,685 410
KAWIT ORIENTAL 10 73 149 58 51 1,539 318
LIBERTAD 13 28 139 45 68 3,970 673
POBLACION 10 30 256 183 56 2,462 732
PAITON 61 150 218 0 24 969 12
TACUB 28 98 318 75 65 1,986 493
TINGINTINGIN 5 102 109 59 25 792 210
TUGAR 42 145 368 10 102 1,010 20
Total 435 1,203 2,613 657 637 23,311 3,613


Table 23: Livestock and Poultry Products,

Production-Consumption Situation – 2016

Products Total Production (m.t.) Total Consumption (m.t.) Surplus / deficit (m.t.)
Carabeef 91.35 14.93 Surplus – 76.42
Beef 180.45 14.35 Surplus – 166.10
Pork 34.16 88.01 Deficit – 53.85
Poultry meat 27.97 152.99 Deficit – 125.02
Poultry egg 2.32 75.68 Deficit – 73.36


  1. Fisheries


Kauswagan is sprawled along of Iligan Bay, because of strategic location, Kauswagan is one of the fish and other aquamarine suppliers of the province of Lanao del Norte. Sources of marine products are coming from the waters of the Bay. Existing swamplands/marshlands are only 18.9970 hectares accounting to only 0.31 percent of the total Municipal areas which is 6,037.5929 hectares. Although, Kauswagan might play the vital role of fish and marine supplier-production, still fishery activities could not even sustain its local consumption requirement. As of 2009, there are twelve (12)  fisherman’s association/Bantay Dagat 3  in Poblacion, 2 in Bagumbayan, 1-in Kawit Oriental, 1-in Kawit Occidental, 2-in Libertad and 3-in Tacub with a total of 421 members. Fishing is in Water 10-15 fathoms depths.  Fishery activities in the municipality are limited to non-commercial domestic fishing gears such as  artificial reef with two  types of module-  1.) Bamboo Module and 2.) Fish Shelter (Payao). Other fishing activities are Fishing Nets, Spear Fishing and Hook and Line fishing which is usually undertaken by marginal fishermen (refer to table 59).

The existing fishing ground of the municipality is 1,985.88 hectares subdivided by the seven (7) coastal Barangays of Libertad (283.98 has.); Tacub (283.39 has.); Bagumbayan  ( 284.18 has.); Poblacion ( 291.92 has.); Tugar ( 280.21 has.); Kawit Oriental ( 281.00 has.); and Kawit Occidental ( 281.20 has.) see table 61. Of the said fishing ground the top ten products catched in the year 2009 are Alimango, Squid, Labayan, Tamban, Mulmol, Danggit, Barungoy, Bugsawan, Gutob and Sambagon with estimated  average annual fish catched of 339.97 metric tons (refer Table 31).

Table 31: Location and  Number of Fishermen

by Type of Fishing Gears and Vessels Used: 2013

BARANGAYS LOCATION Total No. of Fishermen / Operator Fishing Gear Used FISHING VESSELS USED
Motorized Non- Motorized
1. Kawit Occidental 15 Fishing Net 1 6
2. Kawit Oriental 30 Hook & Line / Gill Net / Drift Fishing Net 15 24
3. Tugar 4 Gill Nets 7 5
4. Poblacion 105 Fishing Nets / Hook and Line 37 30
5. Bagumbayan 80 Fishing Nets / Spear Fishing 16 55
6. Tacub 152 Fishing Nets / Hook and Line 105 4
7. Libertad 100 Fishing Nets / Hook and Line 20 84
TOTALS 486   192 213


Table 32: Location and Area in Hectares of Existing Fishing Ground-  2012

Name of Fishing Ground Location / Barangays Area in Hectare Percent to TotalLand Area Number of Households Covered




Kawit Occidental 281.20 14.16 224
Kawit Oriental 281.00 14.15 271
Tugar 280.21 14.11 210
Poblacion 291.92 14.70 863
Bagumbayan 284.18 14.31 650
Tacub 283.39 14.27 598
Libertad 283.98 14.30 614
TOTALS 1,985.88 100 3,430


Table 33: Production of existing Fishing Ground – 2012

Type of Fish

( Top ten )

Average Catch/Unit of Effort Total / yr. in metric tons
1. Alimango 7-10 3.06 200
2. Squid 30-40 8.40 200
3. Labayan 15-20 4.50 80
4. Tamban 1,600-1,800 288.00 50
5. Mulmol 15-20 4.50 120
6. Danggit 20-25 5.40 180
7. Barungoy 30-40 8.40 120
8. Bugsawan 20-25 5.40 120
9. Gutob 25-30 4.95 120
10. Sambagon 25-30 7,20 130
TOTALS   339.97 1,320


  1. Food Self-Sufficiency Assessment


The food production is computed using the average production of farmers in a week by 48 weeks while the demand for food s computed by a product of covered population by the Annual per capita food requirement. The computation resulted a low level Food Self-sufficiency for meat of 2.13% and highest level for rootcrops of 177.57%

Table 34: Food Self-Sufficiency – 2012

Commodity Supply (m.t.) Per capita / year requirement Demand (m.t.) Self-sufficiency level (0%)
Grains (rice) 108.00 0.11434 2,674.00 4.04
Sugar 240.00 0.02100 491.04 48.88
Asst. vegetables / legumes 202.08 0.01265 295.80 63.32
Rootcrops 303.12 0.00730 170.70 177.57
Fish 606.72 0.03065 716.69 84.66
Meat 50.40 0.03313 2,362.77 2.13


  1. Forestry

The Municipality of Kauswagan has iidentified some forestlands totaling to about 554.2371 hectares or 6.83 percent of the municipal area which is 8,114.7462 hectares, more or less. These areas are found in Barangay Baraason, Cayontor, Inudaran, Libertad, Tacub and Tingintingin. Due to destructive practices of some illegal loggers, the rampant cutting of minor forest products and the widespread practices of Kaingin or shifting cultivation resulted in the rapid denudation of these forestlands and in turn destruction of watershed areas. As of the decades 90’s to year 2000 , those areas are logged-over and remained un-reforested with this year, thus nearby farmers attempted in planting of coconut & root crops and made them very successful, in fact said shifting is found productive.  At present, wood and other forest products that could be obtained in these areas are limited to local consumption only.

  1. Agricultural Support Facilities

The Local Government Unit Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte has existing 2 units Dumptruck,  1 unit Road Grader and 1 unit Farm tractor which are presently utilized to maintain and improve agricultural support facilities such as Barangay Farm to Market Roads, Farm lands and Post-Harvest facilities. Other Post harvest facilitiesto support agricultural services are multi-purpose pavements in the barangays that utilized as Solar Dryers for copra and corn. There is also a corn mill located at barangay Bagumbay50an which is privately operated. 


The secondary sector is composed of Manufacturing, Construction and Quarrying, and Electricity, Gas and Water Occupational Activities. Most trend of employment falls under the Construction with 261 in the labor force are employed followed by Electricity, Water and Gas with 93 are employed and Quarrying with 74 are employed.

  1. Manufacturing

There are a meager small scale manufacturing activities situated at the barangays of Poblacion, Bagumbayan and Tacub   which are usually furniture, handicraft and agricultural processing. Employments are limited to family members or self-employment in nature.

  1. Construction

This type of occupation shared an estimated 14.00% of the employed labor force brought about by public and private construction works. In public works, employment takes placed in the construction works administered by the Local Government Unit while in various construction contracts in some nearby communities of the municipality.

  1. Quarrying

Quarrying activities is undertaken at Barangays Libertad, Baraason and Tingintingin both in the interior barangays employing and estimated 4.00% of the employed labor force, of course the local residents of the two (2) barangays.

  1. Electricity, Gas and Water

The supplier of Lights, Power and Water of the locality had their satellite offices in Kauswagan. The Lanao del Norte Electric Cooperative (LANECO) has a Power Substation located at Barangay Bagumbayan and Collection Office at Barangay Poblacion. The Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) is establishing its local counterpart through the Kauswagan Water District with business office at Barangay Bagumbayan. Likewise a newly established Gasoline Refueling Station financed by Petron Corporation is now operational. All of them employed about 5.00% of employed labor force.


The Tertiary Sector are composed of Wholesale / Retail Trade; Transportation, Storage and Communication; Community, Social and Personal Services; and Finance / Insurance / Real Estate & Business. The local labor force are employed to Wholesale / Retail & Trade; Transportation, Storage & communication; Community, Social and Personal Services; and Finance / Insurance / Real Estate & Business.

Table 35: Tertiary  Sector

Submunicipal sectors Barangays Manufacturing Finance Trading Services Total


BAGUMBAYAN 2 2 30 15 49
POBLACION 3 5 50 87 145


CAYONTOR 2 10 12
PAITON 3 8 11










LIBERTAD   3 27 15 45
Estuarine KAWIT ORIENTAL    








TACUB   4 25 21 50
TUGAR   2 5 13 20

Agricultural plain

BARAASON     4 10 14
DELABAYAN     7 16 23
INUDARAN     5 18 23
TOTALS 5 20 205 260 490



9.1 Hugyaw sa Kadagatan Festival

The Municipality of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte is in the Road Map of Tourism Industry in Region 10 through its famous Annual Tourism Festival dubbed as HUGYAW SA KADAGATAN (Festival by the Sea), festival showcases the bounty, preservation, and protection of the marine habitat and held annually every April 24-25- Kauswagan’s Charter Day and Fiesta Celebration. Hugyaw Sa Kadagatan Festival is one of the most unique festivals in the country today. It proudly showcases the bounty and beauty of the Kauswagan town in Lanao del Norte.

A touch of religious culture that brings an exclusively unique festival the ‘HUGYAW SA KADAGATAN FESTIVAL” a sea raft dancing competition/exhibition using sea creature caricatures that offers a higher degree of excitement and thrill. Part of the festival’s charm are cultural dancers combining artistry and balance while performing on the fabricated bamboo raft called ‘gakit’. The dance is accompanied by gongs, cymbals, and other indigenous instruments, adding its diversity

Visitors come by the thousands and join locals to witness the colorful fluvial festival of the Hugyaw sa Kadagatan Festival in the crystal clear waters of the Iligan Bay. The fluvial parade features contingents from the different Barangays competing in several categories: the Best in Festival dancing, Best in Gakit competition, Best in Festival Queen, Boat racing, swimming competitions, actual fishing and collection of seashells among a host of other activities for their patron saint, San Vicente Ferrer.

Mabuhay Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte! A booming and Peaceful municipality in Northern Mindanao today. SIKAD PA KAUSWAGAN!


Kauswagan is a multi-awarded municipality in terms of transparency and  good governance. It was heralded as the forerunner of Arms to Farms ProgramAn organic municipality in the province of Lanao del Norte with an increased capability of producing organic based products and commodities.It is expected to become the hub of agri- industry where agriculture is the primary livelihood of its constituents. With the presence of practical school for agriculture our farmer can learn the latest technology on organic farming techniques and strategies. It is projected that the market for healthy commodities has been dramatically increased due to health conscious individual. Hence the aim is to cater this market.Kauswagan can effectively assume this role since the strong leadership of the executive body focus on grassroots participation where farmer and fishermen can avail all the local government programs. It is capable of affecting substantial changes in distribution of its population to takes place within boundaries given appropriate support by the different levels of government. Given its existing natural resources, Kauswagan could take investment decisions or proposals of an economic size and could supply its own industries with the necessary labor due to its homogenous economic structure. Complementing the role assigned to Kauswagan in the provincial hierarchy of Lanao del Norte ,as a major urban center providing power (with the presence of GN Power) as a linkages in all of Mindanao. Due to this strategic location the economic growth could be spontaneous where employment maximizes for its constituents. The preferred strategy of Kauswagan is the Organic Agriculture with the touch of Industrialization under this strategy four barangays shall serve its center for urban development (Poblacion, Bagumbayan, Libertad and Tacub) where levels of economic and social services will be concentrated. Likewise the location of organic agriculture are the interior barangays (Tingintingin, Baraason, Inudaran, Delabayan,Paiton and Cayontor). The other coastal barangay (Kawit Occidental, Kawit Oriental, Tugar) shall continue to perform as tourism and recreational area at the same time utilizing its coastal water for fishery development. Agricultural production shall continue to be pursued in the highly agricultural barangays for the production of coconut, corn, upland rice, banana, vegetables and root crops. Despite of the dark past, the municipality has attained peace and order through the non- discriminative effort of the Local Chief Executive. He has taken into considerations the learning aspect of the constituents in the interior barangay that is to educate them in the field of organic farming hence the School for Practical Agriculture was established. Through this initiative the Arms was being replaced by the knowledge for Farms and receiving more benefits from the program thus rebels embrace the Arms to Farms program giving us the chance to a Galing Pook Awardee.

As a fifth class municipality, we generated income far from we expected because of the incoming investment that flourishes within our vicinity due to the peace and order that was attained.A proof to that is the Multi- millioninvestment of the 540MW GN Power Plant that was located in Libertad. With this present development we can develop more of the Social and Economic Sector and to improve the general services through the program and activities that delivers basic services and public safety. Adding more facilities including basic infrastructure essential for the upliftment of the general people as well as initiatives to protect and preserve the environment and natural resources for both present and future generations. Therefore, Kauswagan now has become a pleasant place to live in, to work with and to visit for.




By: Farida D. Barandia

The Municipality of Kauswagan, LAnao Del Norte is in the Road Map of Tourism Industry in Region 10 through its famous Annual Tourism Festival dubbed as HUGYAW SA KADAGATAN (festival by the Sea), festival showcases the bounty, preservation, and protection of the Marine habitat and held annually every April 24-25- Kauswagan’s Charter Day and Fiesta Celebration. Hugyaw sa Kadagatan Festival is one of the most unique festivals in the country today. It proudly showcases the bounty and beauty of KAuswagan town in Lanao del Norte.

A touch of religious culture that brings an exclusively unique festival the “HUGYAW SA KADAGATAN FESTIVAL” a sea raft dancing competition exhibition using sea creatures that offers a higher degree of excitement and thrill. Part of the Festival’s charm are cultural dancers combining artistry and balanced while performing on the fabricated bamboo raft called “gakit“. the dance is accompanied by gongs, cymbals and other indigenous instruments adding its diversity.

Visitors come by the thousands and joins local to witness the colorful fluvial festival of the hugyaw sa kadagatan festival in the crystal clear waters of the Bay. The fluvial parade features contingents from the different Barangays competing in several categories.

Mabuhay Kauswagan, Lanao Del Norte! A blooming and Peaceful Muncipality in Northern Mindanao today. SIKAD PA KAUSWAGAN!




By: Jerecho Placido

Benjamin franklin once said: “Tell me and I may forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn. Such is the mindset of Kauswagan LGU paritcipants of the recently concluded GMCP Plant Tour in Mariveles, Bataan.”

Members of the Sanguniang Bayan namely Hon. Alde Tan, Hon. Aga Dimakuta, Hon. Desiderio Ayuno, Hon. Alice Pala, Hon. Genoveva Quedevida, Hon. Bu Michael Adenir and LGU consultants namely Estherlina Placido, Jerecho PLacido, Engr. Jim Unde as well as Municipal Engineer Engr. Saidale Maruhom were oriented and toured around the state of the art coal-fired power plant facility. The tour was made possible through the office of the Municipal Mayor, Rommel Arnado of Kauswagan and GN Power to shed light on how the local and provincial government as well as its community can benefit from the operations of the Power Plant. GN Power Community Relations officer Joelmar Naong and Community Relations head Bobet RAcelis spearheaded the activity.

One of the highlights of the tour was the appearance of no other than the plant manager himself, Adrian Cowan, where he proudly presented the current operational effiencies. Mr. Cowan also meticulously explained that the advanced technology the plant is using helps them a lot in terms of complying DENR standards. He took a lot of pride in showing us the data wherein the reduction of sulfur oxide, which can cause acid rain, has been significantly reduced. Mr. Cowan was also very particular when it comes to the welfare of his 211 employees from which 50% are residence of the Province of Bataan. On top of the rigorous safety measures, Mr. Cowan highlighted the drug and alcohol surprise tests for their employees. So far, the two 302 MW power plant is at 90% operational efficiency and is providing one of the cheapest electricity rates in the country. Adrian is now focusing on fine tuning their policies to further improve their performance.

Before the plant tour orientation ended,the participants were surprised when GN Power Kauswagan Plant Manager Mike Savich showed up and shared his thoughts about his new work assignment.Mike,who happens to have a military background,also said he is very excited and he is looking forward to be working in Kauswagan and start helping the local community. The following day,when the SB members were on their way back to Kauswagan,the LGU consultants stayed and had several meetings at the Municipal of Mariveles. The Kauswagan LGU consultants were met by Mr. Armando Rubia,the Executive Secretary of the Municipal Mayor of Mariveles. Mr. Rubia confirmed to the consultants the benefits that their local community has enjoyed from GN Power. One of those benefits that the municipality was really thankful for was the frequent visit of GN Power doctors to check the health of the local community. GN Power also organized an annual medical mission with doctors from the United States. According to Mr. Rubia,it appears that GN Power is very much committed to help the constituents of Mariveles particularly on health issues. GN Power even donated a hospital to the said municipality.

On top of the meeting at the Municipality,the LGU consultants also met with other SEPC sub contractors to smooth en operations operations,improve working relations and search for opportunities to help the Municipality of Kauswagan.

Coming together is beginning,keeping together is progress. Working together is success. Progress is impossible without change,and those who cannot change anything. Kauswagan is on the verge of economic boom and the lessons learned from the recently concluded plant tour can definitely be a big help in involving the whole municipality and the local community with the upcoming progress.